Regarding the application of photovoltaic modules in buildings, it can generally be divided into the following three situations.
- On a sloping roof building
(1) inclined paving
It is to combine the photovoltaic modules with the roof using a special mounting structure and spread them on the roof. This method is not obtrusive in combination with the building, and is inexpensive compared to other sloping roof installation methods. Different types of installation systems suitable for sloping roofs can be directly purchased in the market. It is a common application method of combining photovoltaic modules with buildings. see picture 1.
That is, there are hooks or clips behind the photovoltaic modules, which are directly installed on the frame structure to replace part of the roof tiles. This way of embedding makes the photovoltaic modules and the building well integrated, easy to install, and realizes the perfect combination of technology and art, as shown in Figure 2a.
(3) Photovoltaic module roof tiles
①It is the roof tile itself, that is, the photovoltaic module is directly used as a building material, instead of the roof tile, and installed on the prepared mold. This PV module has the same performance as standard tiles, being waterproof and storm-proof, see Figure 2b.
②Integrate with the roof tile The frame of the photovoltaic module is made into a shape similar to the shape and color of the roof tile, and it is integrated with the roof tile. This installation method can be spread out as a whole, or embellished, arranged in different patterns, changing the previous roof tile arrangement style, highlighting the architectural personality, and opening up a new development space for the application of photovoltaic modules, see Figure 3a.
(4) Skylight, daylighting roof type
In this way, when photovoltaic modules are integrated in buildings, double-glass modules or hollow modules are used as photovoltaic skylights or skylights. Since the skylight or skylight has certain requirements for light transmittance, for the crystalline silicon solar cells that are not light-transmitting, it is necessary to adjust the amount of light transmittance by adjusting the gap between the cells, so as to transmit light and provide indoor lighting. Power is supplied, see Figure 3b.
- On flat-roofed buildings
Flat roofs have great potential for installing photovoltaic systems, and one of its significant advantages is that the optimal location is determined with the help of support structures (flat-roof photovoltaic system installations require special mounting structures to provide them with the required angle), and the angle of inclination can be Adjust according to special requirements.
(1) Slanted array
①The overall oblique type is affected by different solar irradiance in different regions, which affects the conversion efficiency of light and electricity. Therefore, some regions require photovoltaic modules to have a certain inclination angle so that the maximum area can receive solar radiation. This application method is that each unit of photovoltaic modules is combined into an inclined plane to form an array, which is used to solve the problem of the inclined angle.
②Single group inclined type means that a single unit photovoltaic module or several units of photovoltaic modules are combined into a group to form an inclined plane, and then form an array. This is another way to address the tilt angle of PV modules.
(2) Skylight, daylighting roof type
Similar to skylights and skylights used in sloping roofs, when photovoltaic modules are combined with buildings, double-glass modules or hollow modules are used, and the amount of light transmission can be controlled by adjusting the gap between the cells, which is beautiful and energy-saving, and can also form Mysterious light and shadow beauty. However, this application method is suitable for areas with low latitude, otherwise the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic modules will be affected due to the small area of receiving solar radiation.
(3) Floating plate type
That is, the photovoltaic modules are integrated with the roof floating board to jointly construct the appearance of the building. Not abrupt, not far-fetched, very cleverly combined with the building.
- On the exterior wall of the building
The use of photovoltaic modules on the outer walls is very conspicuous and can express the architectural personality, but the application of photovoltaic modules outside the vertical contour does not achieve the best lighting state. Although the use of photovoltaic modules on building facades, especially on the east or west side of the building can be profitable, the effect depends to a large extent on the local latitude. The main application methods are as follows.
(1) Curtain wall system
There are two types of photovoltaic curtain wall systems here, one is composed of ordinary solar cell modules (if you need to know more about solar cells, you can visit tycorun.com and there will be someone here to answer your questions), the other One is the transparent glass photovoltaic curtain wall. It installs double glass components or hollow components as building materials on the building facade, which not only has good light transmittance, but also saves expensive exterior decoration materials (glass curtain wall, etc.), and forms a characteristic light and shadow, mysterious and magical, adding the charm of the building. The perfect combination of photovoltaic curtain wall systems and buildings not only saves energy and protects the environment, but also highlights the characteristics of “green” buildings and spreads the concept of environmental protection.
(2) Wall façade embellishment here refers to the use of photovoltaic modules on the wall façade as embellishment, paving in many patterns or regular arrays to form a style that blends with the building. Instead of being fully covered or paved into a large square. This is a good application solution.
(3) Sun shading system (louver, sun visor, etc.) The form of photovoltaic modules integrated with the building also includes sun shading louvers and sun visors, which can generate electricity while bringing shade in summer, which is energy-saving and practical.
The awning is located on the upper part of the outer door at the entrance of the building. It is used to block the rain and protect the outer door from the rain. Using double-glass modules or hollow modules as awnings is energy-saving, practical, cost-saving, and highlights the sense of technology.
Today, with the development of the market, the combination of photovoltaic modules and buildings is developing rapidly and has achieved good results, but there are still very few truly successful BIPV solutions. In the overall design scheme, the integrated photovoltaic system does not simply force the addition of solar panels or directly replace the original building materials in the building, but also covers other functions of the outer layer of the building. For example, the glass structure of the photovoltaic system is installed on the sloped roof to act as a waterproof layer, and it can also be installed above the waterproof layer to resist the direct radiation of the sun’s ultraviolet rays and prolong the life of the waterproof layer. Photovoltaic systems can also be placed on roofs as architectural elements or as shading systems. Heating, cooling and daylight control systems can also be incorporated into photovoltaic and building-integrated systems as an effective component of insulation. But the most important point is that architects can be proficient in the performance of solar cells in the early stage of design, and can accurately and creatively discover the various possibilities of integration. Installing a photovoltaic system is not a simple, inexpensive project if a building was not originally planned to have solar installations installed. Photovoltaic system is a design factor of a building, which should be fully considered in the initial design, so as to truly achieve the integration of solar energy and building.